Preparing for general medical examination
In order for the results of the examination to be as clear and precise as possible, the recommendations of the physician should be followed:
Recommended to the patient who received the referent laboratory for the blood tests
- For the reliability of your laboratory results of blood it is necessary day before going to the laboratory to eat lighter food up to 18-20 hours. After 18-20 hours you can drink liquid but not alcohol.
- In the morning before going to the laboratory don’t eat or drink anything.
- If you don’t give blood for testing early in the morning but during the day, at least 3 hours before blood testing is not recommended to eat or drink sweet drinks. It is preferable not to eat or eat at least light meals.
- In the case of regular therapy, you must take a morning dose of medication to gain a true insight into the condition of your body and the degree of regulation of the present disease.
How does blood sample take?
During taking a blood from vein ( veinpunctuate ) technician/ nurse, introduce a needle through the skin into the vein , and blood flows out into the syring or tube. Mostly the veinpunctuate is performing on the internal said of a elbow where the vein is easily accessible. Above the place where the blood will be taken we place supporter in aim to make vein more visible. Procedure of taking blood lasts about 3 minutes. After that place of veinpunctuate must be hardly pushed to stop bleeding and prevent hematoma making. We emphasizes strongly that after placing the swab of cotton wool you need to press strongly place of the punctuate at least for 5 minutes.
Does it hurt?
When a needle goes through skin, you can feel a mild pain. It is possible to appears extra discomfort when a blood starts to run out the vein. If you are taking a child or fearful person you need to explain that mild pain or discomfort can be felt.
If you have deep and invisible veins, you need to consult with your doctor to drink 8 to 10 glasses of liquid before taking a blood. That will relive taking blood out. Immediately before taking blood is necessary to do some exercises , for hands. If you have dry skin in order to facilitate procedure of taking blood it is recommended to put on hydrant cream up to four times a day on the skin of whole hand. And the veinpuctate will be less painful.
If you feel nervous or dizziness, you need to inform a nurse about that before it starts taking blood out. Taking blood can be performed in relaxed lying position or postponed, in the moment when you feel better. If you in any moment feel dizziness or swoon, you need to tell that to a nurse of anyone by your sight.
Recommendations to patient who gets a referral to a urine analysis
- Containers for collecting urine need to be clean, dry and made of an inert plastic
- For routine urine examination, collects the first morning example ( standard), right after night’s rest, and before breakfast or other activities. Recommendations are to take this sample after 8 hours of resting and at least 4 hours of urine retention in a bladder. Before taking urine, flush the area of the genitals and take the middle jet of the urine into the vial.
- If you are unable to submit urine to the laboratory within 2 hours of sampling then, due to the inability to adequately store the sample, do not bring your first morning urine for analysis, but upon arrival at the healthcare facility, give a new sample, which will also be valid for analysis.
THE IMPORTANCE OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
When is need to do a laboratory examination?
If the patient don’t have any health problems, recommendation is to do Complete Blood Count(CBC), urine analysis, and basic biochemical analysis for preventive reasons once in two years. Those analysis will serve to your doctor to follow your health condition. If the patient has helath problems your doctor will refers you to do the blood tests when it is need, and determinate what tests should be done.
What considers a Complete Blood Count?
CBC means white blood cell count, red blood cell count, platelate count, haemoglobin level, hematokrit value, white blood cell differential, and certain parameters like MCV, MCH, MCHC.
An anaemia can be detected by Complete Blood Count, and some bleeding disorder, inflammatory processes and whole range of haematological diseases.
What are basic biochemical analysis and on what they can point?
Sedimentation – is mostly use for detection and following inflammatory processes. It can be increased in rheumatic diseases too, and some anaemia, malignant procedures etc.
Fibrinogen – determines for discovering inflammatory processes and rheumatologic illness, and questioning liver function
Glucoses – is analysing because of detecting and following diabetes. The persons in whose family there are relatives with diabetes are in the risk group and need to control glucose level in the blood more often
Keratin, urea, uric acid-determinates – for discovery and following kidney disease and some other conditions
Lipid profile includes: cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle – those parameters give up dates about risk of developing atherosclerosis with whole effects on cardiovascular system. Atherosclerosis is common name for disease in which the blood vessel’s wall loses its elasticity. Based on results, we advice patients to change their habits ( diet, smoking, physical activity) or using proper drugs.
Bilirubin (total and direct), transaminases (AST and ALT), gamma GT, alkaline phosphatase are used for detection liver disease and bile ducts diseases.
Creatine kinase (CK-NAC, creatine kinase MB and lactate dehydrogenase) are determining like parameters for heart and muscle function.
Iron, TIBC, UIBC – are parameters that are using in diagnosis of anaemia and in following effects of therapy.
What dose consider examination of urine and what is using for?
Routine inspection ( urine) considers its physical chemical processing ( colour, appearance, PH reaction, specific weight, presents of glucoses, proteins, acetone, bilirubine, urobilinogn and nitrats) and microscopic review of urine sediment in what can be found erythrocytes, leukocytes, bacteria, fungi, epitel cells, mucus, crystals and other materies. Urin examination is using for detection kidney disease and urinary tract.
What is the significance of laboratory analysis?
A laboratory analysis are used in every day work of doctors and are significant for:
- Establishing diagnosis
- Assessment of severity of illness
- Following developing of illness
- Organism response of certain therapy
During establishing of diagnosis, results are compared to normal values, while follow the illness process and effect of therapy, results of the patients are comparing to its earlier results.