Preparing for general medical examination

 

Recommended to the patient who received the referent laboratory for the blood tests

How does blood sample take?

During taking a blood from vein ( veinpunctuate ) technician/ nurse, introduce a needle through the skin into the vein , and blood flows out into the syring or tube. Mostly the veinpunctuate is performing on the internal said of a elbow where the vein is easily accessible. Above the place where the blood will be taken we place supporter in aim to make vein more visible. Procedure of taking blood lasts about 3 minutes. After that place of veinpunctuate  must be hardly pushed to stop bleeding and prevent hematoma making. We emphasizes strongly that after placing the swab of cotton wool you need to press strongly place of the punctuate at least for 5 minutes.

Does it hurt?

When a needle goes through skin, you can feel a mild pain. It is possible to appears extra discomfort when a blood starts to run out the vein. If you are taking a child or fearful person you need to explain that mild pain or discomfort can be felt.

Useful advices:

If you have deep and invisible veins, you need to consult with your  doctor to drink 8 to 10 glasses of liquid before taking a blood. That will relive taking blood out. Immediately before taking blood is necessary to do some exercises , for hands. If you have dry skin in order to facilitate procedure of taking blood it is recommended to put on hydrant cream up to four times a day on the skin of whole hand. And the veinpuctate will be less painful.

If you feel nervous or dizziness, you need to inform a nurse about that before it starts taking blood out. Taking blood can be performed in relaxed lying position or postponed, in the moment when you feel better. If you in any moment feel dizziness or swoon, you need to tell that to a nurse of anyone by your sight.

Recommendations to patient who gets a referral to a urine analysis

THE IMPORTANCE OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

When is need to do a laboratory examination?

If the patient don’t have any health problems, recommendation is to do Complete Blood Count(CBC), urine analysis, and basic biochemical analysis for preventive reasons once in two years. Those analysis will serve to your doctor to follow your health condition. If the patient has helath problems your doctor will refers you to do the blood tests when it is need, and determinate what tests should be done.

What considers a Complete Blood Count?

CBC  means white blood cell count, red blood cell count, platelate count, haemoglobin level, hematokrit value, white blood cell differential, and certain parameters like MCV, MCH, MCHC.

An anaemia can be detected by Complete Blood Count, and some bleeding disorder, inflammatory processes and whole range of haematological diseases.

What are basic biochemical analysis and on what they can point?

Sedimentation – is mostly use for detection and following inflammatory processes. It can be increased in rheumatic diseases too, and some anaemia, malignant procedures etc.

Fibrinogen – determines for discovering inflammatory processes and rheumatologic illness, and questioning liver function

Glucoses – is analysing because of detecting and following diabetes. The persons in whose family there are relatives with diabetes are in the risk group and need to control glucose level in the blood more often

Keratin, urea, uric acid-determinates for discovery and following kidney disease and some other conditions

Lipid profile includes: cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle – those parameters give up dates about risk of developing atherosclerosis with whole effects on cardiovascular system. Atherosclerosis is common name for disease in which the blood vessel’s wall loses its elasticity. Based on results, we advice patients to change their habits ( diet, smoking, physical activity) or using proper drugs.

Bilirubin (total and direct), transaminases (AST and ALT), gamma GT, alkaline phosphatase are used for detection liver disease and bile ducts diseases.

Creatine kinase (CK-NAC, creatine kinase MB and lactate dehydrogenase) are determining like parameters for heart and muscle function.

Iron, TIBC, UIBC – are parameters that are using in diagnosis of anaemia and in following effects of therapy.

What dose consider examination of urine and what is using for?

Routine inspection ( urine) considers its physical chemical processing ( colour, appearance, PH reaction, specific weight, presents of glucoses, proteins, acetone, bilirubine, urobilinogn and nitrats) and microscopic review of urine sediment in what can be found erythrocytes, leukocytes, bacteria, fungi, epitel cells, mucus, crystals and other materies. Urin examination is using for detection kidney disease and urinary tract.

What is the significance of laboratory analysis?

A laboratory analysis are used in every day work of doctors and are significant for:

During establishing of diagnosis, results are compared to normal values, while follow the illness process and effect of therapy, results of the patients are comparing to its earlier results.